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ESD Standards
Position:ZUNKIN -A Safe electronic world » ESD Standards

ESD Standards

time:2016-08-25 21:17:01

ESD Standards


The electronics industry is continually shifting. Device density and technology is more complex. Electronics manufacturing is more heavily reliant on out-sourcing. The ESD industry seems to have jumped into this swirling eddy headfirst. ESD control programs have mushroomed. Black has been replaced by green, blue and gold. Shielding bags dominate the warehouse. Ionizers exist along side wrist straps and ground cords. An early history of “smoke and mirrors,” magic and lofty claims of performance is rapidly and safely being relegated to the past.

Today, more than ever, meeting the complex challenge of reducing ESD losses requires more than reliance on faith alone. Users require a way to legitimately evaluate and compare competing brands and types of products. They need objective confirmation that their ESD control program provides effective solutions to their unique ESD problems. Contract manufacturers and OEM’s require mutually agreed-upon ESD control programs that reduce duplication of process controls.

That’s where standards come into play. They provide guidance in developing programs that effectively address ESD process control. They help define the sensitivity of the products manufactured and used. They help define the performance requirements for various ESD control materials, instruments, and tools. Standards are playing an ever-increasing role in reducing marketplace confusion in the manufacture, evaluation, and selection of ESD control products and programs.

The Who and Why of Standards

Who uses ESD standards? Manufacturers and users of ESD sensitive devices and products, manufacturers and distributors of ESD control products, certification registrars, and third party testers of ESD control products.

Why use ESD standards? They help assure consistency of ESD sensitive products and consistency of ESD control products and services. They provide a means of objective evaluation and comparison among competitive ESD control products. They help reduce conflicts between users and suppliers of ESD control products. They help in developing, implementing, auditing, and certifying ESD control programs. And, they help reduce confusion in the marketplace.

In the United States, the use of standards is voluntary, although their use can be written into contracts or purchasing agreements between buyer and seller. In most of the rest of the world, the use of standards, where they exist, is compulsory.

Key Standards and Organizations

Just 20 years ago, there were relatively few reliable ESD standards and few ESD standards development organizations. Today’s ESD standards landscape is not only witnessing an increase in the number of standards, but also increasing cooperation among the organizations that develop them.

Today’s standards fall into three main groups. First, there are those that provide ESD program guidance or requirements. These include documents such as ANSI ESD S20.20-2007--Standard for the Development of an ESD Control Program, ANSI/ESD S8.1-Symbols-ESD Awareness , or ESD TR20.20-ESD Handbook.

A second group covers requirements for specific products or procedures such as packaging requirements and grounding. Typical standards in this group are ANSI/ESD S6.1-Grounding and ANSI/ESD S541 –Packaging Materials for ESD Sensitive Items.

A third group of documents covers the standardized test methods used to evaluate products and materials. Historically, the electronics industry relied heavily on test methods established for other industries or even for other materials (e. g., ASTM-257-DC Resistance or Conductance of Insulating Materials). Today, however, specific test method standards focus on ESD in the electronics environment, largely as a result of the ESD Association’s activity. These include standards such as ANSI/ESDA-JEDEC JS-001-2010-Device Testing, Human Body Model and ANSI/ESD STM7.1: Floor Materials -- Resistive Characterization of Materials to cite just a few.

Who Develops Standards?

Standards development and usage is a cooperative effort among all organizations and individuals affected by standards. There are several key ESD standards development organizations.

Military Standards

Traditionally, the U.S. military spearheaded the development of specific standards and specifications with regard to ESD control in the U.S. Today, however, U.S. military agencies are taking a less proactive approach, relying on commercially developed standards rather than developing standards themselves. For example, the ESD Association completed the assignment from the Department of Defense to convert MIL-STD-1686 into a commercial standard called ANSI/ESD S20.20.

ESD Association

The ESD Association has been a focal point for the development of ESD standards in recent years. An ANSI-accredited standards development organization, the Association is charged with the development of ESD standards and test methods. The Association also represents the US on the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 101-Electrostatics.

The ESD Association has published 36 standards documents and 23 Technical Reports. These voluntary standards cover the areas of material requirements, electrostatic sensitivity, and test methodology for evaluating ESD control materials and products. In addition to standards documents, the Association also has published a number of informational advisories. Advisory documents may be changed to other document types in the future.

ESD Association Standards Classifications and Definitions

There are four types of ESD Association standards documents with specific clarity of definition. The four document categories are consistent with other standards development organizations. These four categories are defined below.

  • Standard: A precise statement of a set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, system or process that also specifies the procedures for determining whether each of the requirements is satisfied.

  • Standard Test Method: A definitive procedure for the identification, measurement and evaluation of one or more qualities, characteristics or properties of a material, product, system or process that yields a reproducible test result.

  • Standard Practice: A procedure for performing one or more operations or functions that may or may not yield a test result. Note: If a test result is obtained, it may not be reproducible between labs.

  • Technical Report: A collection of technical data or test results published as an informational reference on a specific material, product, system, or process.

As new documents are approved and issued, they will be designated into one of these four new categories. Existing documents have been reviewed and have been reclassified as appropriate. Several Advisory Documents still exist and may be migrated to either Technical Reports or Standard Practices in the future.

International Standards

The international community, led by the European-based International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), has also climbed on board the standards express. IEC Technical Committee 101 has released a series of documents under the heading IEC 61340. The documents contain general information regarding electrostatics, standard test methods, general practices and an ESD Control Program Development Standard that is technically equivalent to ANSI/ESD S20.20.  A Facility Certification Program is also available.  Global companies can seek to become certified to both ANSI/ESD S20.20 and to IEC61340-5-1 if they so choose. Japan also has released its proposed version of a national electrostatic Standard, which also shares many aspects of the European and U.S. documents.

Organizational Cooperation

Perhaps one of the more intriguing changes in ESD standards has been the organizational cooperation developing between various groups.  One cooperative effort was between the ESD Association and the U.S. Department of Defense, which resulted in the Association preparing ANSI/ESD S20.20 as a successor to MIL-STD-1686.  A second cooperative effort occurred between the ESD Association and JEDEC, which started with an MOU and resulted in the development of 2 documents: a joint HBM document was published in 2010; a joint CDM document will be published in 2011.

Internationally, European standards development organizations and the ESD Association have developed working relationships that result in an expanded review of proposed documents, greater input, and closer harmonization of standards that impact the international electronics community.

For users of ESD standards, this increased cooperation will have a significant impact. First, we should see standards that are technically improved due to broader input. Second, we should see fewer conflicts between different standards. Finally, we should see less duplication of effort.

Summary

For the electronics community, the rapid propagation of ESD standards and continuing change in the standards environment mean greater availability of the technical references that will help improve ESD control programs. There will be recommendations to help set up effective programs. There will be test methods and specifications to help users of ESD control materials evaluate and select products that are applicable to their specific needs. And there will be guidelines for vendors of ESD products and materials to help them develop products that meet the real needs of their customers.

Standards will continue to fuel change in the international ESD community.


 

  

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